New lifestyle from old ideas (舊哲學來的新生活)
The accumulated wisdom of religions and philosophies from around the globe offers much guidance to people who are shaping lifestyles appropriate to the end of the twntieth century. From the Orient, from the Arab World, and from the West come ideas that have endured. Here are some of them.

Buddhism, Christianity, and many other beliefs recognize the value of the Golden Rule: "Do unto others as you would have others do unto you. The Greek philosopher Socrates illustrated the Golden Rule at the end of his life. Scentenceed to death in the fifth B C. for his heretical social and religious views, he refused the chance to escape from prison. This was his e reasoning. When a person is born, Socrates pointed out, he enters into an implied contract with the state. Because of this, the individual has the right to expect protection from the state throughout his lifetime. In turn, the state has an equally strong claim on the citizen to obey its laws. If a person feels that a law is unjust, said Socrates, he has two courses of action. He can either work to influence the repeal of the law or renounce his citizenship, But he must not break the law. In this, he is no different from the state, which must not neglect its duty to the citizen. Socrates' experience speaks to the modern man who sometimes may be tempted to use extreme means to upset the delicate balance exist-ing between a citizen and his state.

A second insight stems from the categorical imperative, "first formulated by the German philosopher Immanuel Kant in his 1785 work Metaphysic of Morals. Stated simply, the categorical imperative
holds that a person should act as if the example of his action were to become a general law for all men to follow. Following this premise, one would find it difficult to justify theft or murder. Even to borrow money is wrong, according to Kant, because if everyone did this, there would be no money left to borrow.

Further guidelines are found in the teachings of Mohammed, collected in the Koran. His Islamic contributions express a profound humanism; Mohammed emphasized the dignity of man and viewed the whole of humanity as a single nation. He both encouraged the expansion of knowledge and placed great importance on the value of work, however humble it might be. Today's young crafts people, skillfully working to create woven goods or jewelry or candles, and the street musicians in many North American cities are all following the industrious tradition of Mohammed.

Still another precept, this one from the Buddhist religion, is illustrated by the custom of buying a bird in a small wooden cage in order to open the cage's door and release the bird. The underlying ideas of gentleness and freedom have a timeless relevance.

Finally, the two short sentences carved by the Greeks on the Temple of Delphi can give superb direction to human life regardless of time or place. "Know thyself," says one inscription, offering advice that is vital but not easy to follow. And "Nothing in excess" reads the second, echoing the Golden Mean, or middle way, stressed by many religions. This rule of acoiding excess in actions can apply equally well to almost every phase of life, including eating, drinking, sleeping, working, playing, thinking, and feeling.
這篇文章一共包含了六個段落,每個段落的一個主題。第一段是開場白,中間四個段落分別討論了四種不同的哲學觀:Golden Rules,康德的良心至高道德律 (categorical imperative),可蘭經教義以及佛家教義。最後一段則是總結。
因此作者在每一個段落的一開始都有很明確的 topic sentence。
這樣的 Topic sentence 會先給讀者一個框架,讓讀者知道接下來的段落會討論的範圍是什麼。